Unterstützende Aussagen außerhalb des Literaturverzeichnisses
- “We confirmed the anti-inflammatory nature of DHA- and DPA-derived EFOX by showing that they can act as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) agonists and inhibit pro- inflammatory cytokine and nitric oxide production, all within biological concentration ranges. These data support the idea that EFOX are signaling mediators that transduce the beneficial clinical effects of omega- 3 fatty acids, COX-2 and aspirin.”
- “The reduced production of these proinflammatory eicosanoids, and the decrease of some cytokines with an immunohenancing effect as a consequence of n-3 PUFA supplementation, could modulate some immune functions which have been demonstrated to be altered in MSP.”
- “Human dendritic cell activities are modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid, mainly through PPARγ:RXR heterodimers”
- “High DHA consumption is associated with reduced Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk. Reduction of dietary n-3 PFA in an Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) mouse model resulted in 80%-90% losses of the p85alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the postsynaptic actin-regulating protein drebrin, as in AD brain. n-3 PFA depletion increased caspase-cleaved actin, which was localized in dendrites ultrastructurally. Treatment of n-3 PFA-restricted mice with DHA protected against these effects and behavioral deficits and increased antiapoptotic BAD phosphorylation. Since n-3 PFAs are essential for p85-mediated CNS insulin signaling and selective protection of postsynaptic proteins, these findings have implications for neurodegenerative diseases where synaptic loss is critical, especially AD.” 
- “Exposure of bone marrow-derived DC to DHA resulted in the maintenance of an immature phenotype and drastic reduction in proinflammatory cytokine release. DHA inhibited the expression and secretion of the IL-12 cytokine family members (IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-27), which play essential roles in the differentiation of the proinflammatory Th1/Th17 effector cells. The effect of DHA on IL-12 expression was mediated through activation of PPARgamma and inhibition of NFkappaB. Inhibition of IL-12 and IL-23 expression was also evident in splenic DC from mice fed a DHA-enriched diet, suggesting that dietary DHA acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in vivo.”
- “Salmon fillets rich in marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs):-After 5 weeks of cuprizone treatment, the mice given salmon-cuprizone had significantly less hyperintense lesion volume on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than the two other groups (P<0.0005). After 6 weeks of cuprizone treatment, the salmon-cuprizone group had less demyelination in the corpus callosum, as measured with luxol fast blue (LFB) (P<0.0005) and anti-proteolipid protein (PLP) (P=0.014). The salmon-cuprizone group also had enhanced remyelination.” 
- “The omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have neuroprotective effects in the aged brain and are endogenous ligands of RXR and PPAR. Overall, DHA supplementation appeared to increase receptor expression compared with the untreated old group. These observations illustrate additional mechanisms that might underlie the neuroprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in ageing.”
- “Docosahexaenoic acid prevents dendritic cell maturation, inhibits antigen-specific Th1/Th17 differentiation and suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.”
- “Beneficial effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on toxin-induced neuronal degeneration in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease; data suggest that a high n-3 PUFA dietary intake exerts neuroprotective actions in an animal model of Parkinsonism.”
- “Omega-3 FA significantly decreased metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels in RRMS and may act as an immune-modulator that has potential therapeutic benefit in MS patients.”
- “DHA-derived Neuro protectin D1 regulation targets upstream events of brain cell apoptosis, as well as neuro-inflammatory signaling, promoting and maintaining cellular homeostasis, and restoring neural and retinal cell integrity.”
- “Fatty acids (FAs) have been shown to alter leucocyte function and thus to modulate inflammatory and immune responses.”
- “A high intake of PUFAs and vitamin E is associated with a 50-60% decreased risk of developing ALS, and these nutrients appear to act synergistically.”
- “The treatment with both omega-3 PUFA and fish oil dose-dependently inhibited the LPS-induced production of MMP-9. Our results suggest that a low fat diet supplemented with omega-3 PUFA may become recommended for the well being of MS patients under therapy.”
- “Low-molecular-weight antioxidants may support cellular antioxidant defences in various ways, including radical scavenging, interfering with gene transcription, protein expression, enzyme activity and by metal chelation. PUFAs may not only exert immunosuppressive actions through their incorporation in immune cells but also may affect cell function within the CNS. Both dietary antioxidants and PUFAs have the potential to diminish disease symptoms by targeting specific pathomechanisms and supporting recovery in MS.”
- “Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness.”
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